Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) simplified

Why was the ELISA test sad after a negative result? Because it is very sensitive! HAHAHA! Sensitive, get it? HAHAHA!

Once you get an autoimmune disease, you are more likely to get others. Why?

Question: Hi, Can you explain why once you get an autoimmune disease you are more likely to get others? Thanks!

How do anti-TNF biologics work?

Question: I became interested in immunology when I was diagnosed with Rheumatoid Arthritis (and Crohn's disease) I have taken several anti-TNF biologics. Could you please illustrate how they work? Thanks!

Maturation of a wanna be T cell

When you are a kid at home, you wanna be something, but you don't know what. You are at the pro-something stage of your life. You could be a pro-science or a pro-arts.

Similarly, in the bone marrow, pro T cells know they wanna be a T cell but they don't know which one. Pro T cells are double negative, that is, CD4 -ve and CD8 -ve.

Pro T cell